A vdo device, is a dm mapped device that does compression and dedup. This will kill the performance of Ceph (if it works at all), if OSDs reside on top of a vdo device. An OSD can use compression and de-duplication is handled in Ceph on a different layer (pool). Besides that it is not upstream in the Linux kernel.
Just reviving this old thread, as it appears that ceph has supported VDO devices since as far back as at least Mimic.
See the bottom of the LVM flags documentation:
A VDO-enabled device is detected when device is getting prepared, and then stored for later checks when activating. This affects mount options by appending the discard mount flag, regardless of mount flags being used.